Thursday, May 31, 2012

Wire Tracer Transmitter

The circuit depicted here forms one half of a device that will prove extremely handy when tracing the path of electrical wiring in a building or to locate a break in a wire. The system is based on similar equipment that is used by technicians in telephone exchanges. The operation is straightforward. You require a generator that delivers an easily recognizable signal which, using a short antenna, is inductively coupled to a simple, but high gain, receiver. To create a useful transmitter it would suffice to build a simple generator based on a 555. But as the adjacent diagram shows, a 556 was selected instead. The second timer (IC1a) is used to modulate the tone produced by IC1b.

Wire Tracer Transmitter Circuit DiagramThe output frequency alternates between about 2100 Hz and 2200 Hz. This is a very distinctive test signal that is easily distinguished from any other signals that may be present. Resistor R6 is connected to a piece of wire, about ten centimeters long, that functions as the antenna. The ground connection (junction C2-C3) is connected to ground. When the antenna is connected directly to a cable, it is possible to determine at the other end of the cable, with the aid of the receiver, which conductor is which (don’t do this with live conductors!). The schematic for the matching receiver may be found elsewhere in this website.
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Sunday, May 27, 2012

Quality FM transmitter circuit

This house FM transmitter for your stereo or any other amplifier provides a good signal strength up to a distance of 500 meters with a power output of about 200 mW. It works off a 9V battery.
The audio-frequency modulation stage is built around transistor BF494 (T1), which is wired as a VHF oscillator and modulates the audio signal present at the base. Using preset VR1, you can adjust the audio signal level.

Audio FM transmitter circuit diagram quality fm transmitter circuit schematic
The VHF frequency is decided by coil L1 and variable capacitor VC1. Reduce the value of VR2 to have a greater power output.
The next stage is built around transistor BC548 (T2), which serves as a Class-A power amplifier. This stage is inductively coupled to the audio-frequency modulation stage. The antenna matching network consists of variable capacitor VC2 and capacitor C9. Adjust VC2 for the maximum transmission of power or signal strength at the receiver.
If you design a good pcb layout you can use it as a car fm transmitter.
For frequency stability, use a regulated DC power supply and house the transmitter inside a metallic cabinet. For higher antenna gain, use a telescopic antenna in place of the simple wire. Coils L1 and L2 are to be wound over the same air core such that windings for coil L2 start from the end point for coil L1. Coil winding
details are given below:
L1: 5 turns of 24 SWG wire closely wound over a 5mm dia. air core
L2: 2 turns of 24 SWG wire closely wound over the 5mm dia. air core
L3: 7 turns of 24 SWG wire closely wound over a 4mm dia. air core
L4: 5 turns of 28 SWG wire on an intermediate-frequency transmitter (IFT) ferrite core
Check the related posts for some stereo fm transmitter circuits.
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Wednesday, May 23, 2012

Remote Control Circuit Through Radio Frequency Without Microcontroller


This is a simple type remote control by using RF communication without microcontroller. In this project a remote has been designed for various home appliances like television, fan, lights, etc. It gives lot of comfort to the user since we can operate it by staying at one place. We can control any of the appliances by using this remote within the range of 400 foots. In this project consist of two sections, transmitter (remote) and receiver section. Whenever we are pressing any key in the remote it generates the corresponding RF signals, and these signals are received by the receiver unit. ASK transmitter and receiver is used as transmitter and receiver. HT12E, HT12D encoders and decoders are used in this electronic circuit. The block digram of the whole circuit is given below.

Appliance Control Block Diagram
Appliance Control Block Diagram

Remote Section

In remote section consist of an encoder (HT 12E) and a ASK transmitter. The encoder generates 8 bit address and 4bit data. We can set the address by using the DIP switch connected in A0 to A7 (pin 1 to 8 ) encoder. If we set an address in the remote section, the same address will be required in the receiver section. So always set same address in transmitter and receiver. Whenever we press any key in the remote the encoder generates corresponding 4bit data and send this data with 8bit address by using ASK transmitter. The transmitting frequency is 433MHz. The transmitter output is up to 8mW at 433.92MHz with a range of approximately 400 foot (open area) outdoors.  Indoors, the range is approximately 200 foot.

Remote or Transmitter Circuit
Remote or Transmitter Circuit

Receiver Section

At the receiver section ASK receiver is present. The receiver also operates at 433.92MHz, and has a sensitivity of 3uV.  The ASK receiver operates from 4.5 to 5.5 volts-DC, and has both linear and digital outputs. It receives the datas from the transmitter. Then the decoder (HT 12D) decodes the date and it will enable the corresponding output pin (pin 10,11,12,13). Each output pins are connected to separate flip flops. The output of encoder will change the state of the flip flop. So its output goes to set (high) from reset (low) state. This change makes a high signal in the output of the flip flop. This output signal is not capable to drive a relay directly. So we are using current driver, SL100 transistor act as the current driver. The appliance is connected to 230V AC through the relay and the appliance will start. The relay will be re-energized when the same switch is pressed in the remote. This is because we are pressing the same switch in the remote control. The output of the decoder again goes to high so this signal will again change the state of the flip flop. So, the relay gets re-energized and the appliance goes to OFF state.

Remote Control Receiver Circuit
Remote Control Receiver Circuit

Components Used

CD 40174
LM 78052
SL 1004
1 K4
560 E4
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Wednesday, May 16, 2012

5V 10A output switching power supply

The Schematic above shows a 10A power suplly with a 5V output and with power 50W. It is a flyback converter operating in the continuous mode. The circuit features a primary side and secondary side controller with full protection from fault conditions such as overcurrent. After the fault condition has been removed the power supply will enter the soft start cycle before recomming normal operation.

10A switching power supply
Component Values :
R2_____1Ω 1W
R5_____0.33Ω 1W
RL_____5Ω 10W

C1_____0.022uF 400V
C2_____470uF  250V

M1____Diode Bridge

Inductor , Transformator
T1_____Lp - 9 mH = 1 : 15
T2_____50 uH. n = 1: 3

Q2____GE IRF823
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Tuesday, May 15, 2012

Automatic Battery Charger Circuit Diagram

Normally, chargers available in the market do not have any sort of control except for a ro-tary switch that can select different tap-pings on a rheostat, to vary the charging current. This type of control is not adequate because of the irregular fluctuations in the mains supply, rendering the control ineffective.  A simple circuit intended for automatic charging of lead-acid batteries is presented here. It is flexible enough to be used for large capacity inverter batteries. Only the rating of transformer and power transistor needs to be increased.

Circuit diagram :

Automatic Battery Charger Circuit Diagram

Automatic Battery Charger Circuit Diagram

The circuit has been basically designed for a car battery (about 40 Ah rating), which could be used for lighting two 40W tube lights. The circuit includes Schmitt trigger relay driver,float charger,and battery voltage monitor sections.  The Schmitt trigger is incorporated to avoid relay chattering. It is designed for a window of about 1V. During charging, when the battery voltage increases be-yond 13.64V, the relay cuts off and the float charging section continues to work. When battery voltage goes below 11.66V, the relay is turned on and direct (fast) charging of the battery takes place at around 3A.  In the Schmitt trigger circuit, resistors R1 and R2 are used as a simple voltage divider (divide-by-2) to provide battery voltage sample to the inverting input terminal of IC1. The non-invert-ing input terminal of IC1 is used for reference input derived from the output of IC2 (7806), using the potentiometer arrangement of resistors R3 (18 kilo-ohm) and R4 (1 kilo-ohm).

LED1 is connected across relay to indicate fast charging mode. Diodes D3 and D6 in the common leads of IC2 and IC3 respectively provide added protecion to the regulators.  The float charging section, comprising regulator 7812, transistors T3 and T4, and few other discrete components, becomes active when the battery volt-age goes above 13.64V (such that the relay RL1 is deenergised). In the energised state of the relay, the emitter and collector of transistor T4 remain shorted, and hence the float charger is ineffective and direct charging of battery takes place.

The reference terminal of regulator (IC3) is kept at 3.9V using LED2, LED3, and diode D6 in the common lead of IC3 to obtain the required regulated output (15.9V), in excess of its rated output, which is needed for proper operation of the circuit. This output voltage is fed to the base of transistor T3 (BC548), which along with transistor T4 (2N3055) forms a Darlington pair. You get 14.5V output at the emitter of transistor T4, but because of a drop in diode D7 you effectively get 13.8V at the positive terminal of the battery. When Schmitt trigger switches ‘on’ relay RL1, charging is at high current rate (boost mode). The fast charging path, starting from transformer X2, comprises diode D5, N/O contacts of relay RL1, and diode D7.

The circuit built around IC4 and IC5 is the voltage monitoring section that provides visual display of battery voltage level in bar graph like fashion. Regulator 7805 is used for generating reference voltage. Preset VR1 (20 kilo-ohm) can be used to adjust voltage levels as indicated in the circuit. Here also a pot meter arrangement using resistors R7, R8, and R9 is used as ‘divide by 3’ circuit to sample the battery voltage. When voltage is below 10V, the buzzer sounds to indicate that the safe dis-charge limit has been exceeded.

Author : Yash Deep - Copyright : EFY Mag
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